< 1 mn read Case History A 32 year old female came with multiple lumps in her right breast which have been there from past 7 years and are increasing in size and number. Initially she was advised conservative management and observation. But the lesions were growing in size and she had started having occasional pain. So she decided […]Continue reading "Excision of Multiple Fibroadenomas (11) from Unilateral Breast"
< 1 mn read Phyllodes Tumor The term Phyllodes originates from Greek word “phullon” which means a leaf. It is also called as Cystosarcoma phyllodes. Here is a picture of a Phyllodes tumor recently operated by us. The patient was a 38 year old female with complaints of swelling in Left breast of 6 months duration which was fast growing […]Continue reading "Phyllodes Tumor"
2 mn read What is Aberration of Normal Development and Involution (ANDI) ? Aberrations in the Normal Development and Involution of the breast (ANDI) is an all encompassing term that is used to describe a wide spectrum of the benign breast diseases. As the name suggests, it is based on the theory that most of the encountered benign breast […]Continue reading "Benign Breast Diseases: ANDI"
< 1 mn read What is Skin Involvement or T4b ? Edema (including peau d’ orange) or ulceration of the skin of the breast or satellite skin nodules confined to the breast. What is not Skin Involvement or T4b ? Dimpling of the skin and nipple retraction is not considered skin involvement. Skin involvement in breast showing a skin […]Continue reading "Understanding Skin Involvement in Ca Breast: T4b"
< 1 mn read How does metastatic lesion from Ca Breast reach vertebrae? The malignant cells from the breast reaches vertebrae via the intercostal veins. The intercostal vein will join the vertebral plexus of the veins. This is also called Batson’s plexus of veins. The peculiarity of this plexus is that there are no valves and therefore the malignant […]Continue reading "Mechanism of Metastasis from Ca Breast to Batson’s Plexus and Liver"
< 1 mn read The clinical stage of breast cancer is determined primarily through physical examination of the skin, breast tissue, and regional lymph nodes (axillary, supraclavicular, and internal mammary). The clinical determination of axillary lymph node metastases has an accuracy of: Only 80% Only 50% Only 33%. Only 10% Answer in the comment section below. Detailed explanation will […]Continue reading "What is the accuracy of clinical determination of Axillary lymph node metastasis in Ca Breast?"
< 1 mn read Worldsurgeryforum.net What is the most important prognostic correlate of disease-free and overall survival in Ca Breast? A) Distant MetastasisB) Size of the tumourC) Skin involvement or Chest fixationD) Axillary lymph node status Answer in the comment section below. Detailed explanation will be posted.Continue reading "Most important prognostic correlate of survival in Ca Breast"
< 1 mn read A)Puckering in Breast Cancer B)Peau d’ orange appearance What is the reason for puckering or skin retraction in Breast Cancer? 1) Desmoplastic Response of tumor leading to shortening of cooper’s ligaments 2) Drainage of lymph fluid from the skin is disrupted 3) Direct migration of tumor cells 4) Satellite growth leading to retraction Please leave your answer in […]Continue reading "What is the reason for puckering or skin retraction in Breast Cancer?"