4 mn read

Case Sheet Proforma: Breast Lump

4 mn read Case sheet proforma for History taking and Examination of Breast Lump. Name:  Age/Sex:  Occupation:  Socioeconomic Status: Presenting Complaints • Lump in the right/left breast for last………….. months/years. Also Read: TOP BOOKS TO STUDY CLINICAL SURGERY BEST BOOKS TO READ DURING YOUR GENERAL SURGERY RESIDENCY THYROID CASE SHEET PROFORMA UNDERSTANDING SKIN INVOLVEMENT IN CA BREAST: T4B […]

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2 mn read

Benign Breast Diseases: ANDI

2 mn read What is Aberration of Normal Development and Involution (ANDI) ? Aberrations in the Normal Development and Involution of the breast (ANDI) is an all encompassing term that is used to describe a wide spectrum of the benign breast diseases. As the name suggests, it is based on the theory that most of the encountered benign breast […]

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< 1 mn read

Understanding Skin Involvement in Ca Breast: T4b

Posted in Surgery

< 1 mn read What is Skin Involvement or T4b ? Edema (including peau d’ orange) or ulceration of the skin of the breast or satellite skin nodules confined to the breast. What is not Skin Involvement or T4b ? Dimpling of the skin and nipple retraction is not considered skin involvement. Skin involvement in breast showing a skin […]

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< 1 mn read

Mechanism of Metastasis from Ca Breast to Batson’s Plexus and Liver

< 1 mn read How does metastatic lesion from Ca Breast reach vertebrae? The malignant cells from the breast reaches vertebrae via the intercostal veins. The intercostal vein will join the vertebral plexus of the veins. This is also called Batson’s plexus of veins.  The peculiarity of this plexus is that there are no valves and therefore the malignant […]

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< 1 mn read

Skin Puckering and Peau d orange appearance in Breast Cancer

< 1 mn read A) Puckering/ Skin Retraction B) Peau d’ Orange appearance A) Shows skin retraction/ puckeringMore than 80% of breast cancers show productive fibrosis that involves the epithelial and stromal tissues. With growth of the cancer and invasion of the surrounding breast tissues, the accompanying desmoplastic response entraps and shortens Cooper’s suspensory ligaments to produce a characteristic […]

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