2 mn read

What is a clonus? | What is Ankle & Patellar Clonus?

Posted in Neurosurgery

2 mn read Definition It is a set of involuntary and rhythmic muscular contractions and relaxations. It is a sign of certain neurological conditions, particularly involving upper motor neuron lesions. In many cases it is accompanied by spasticity (another form of hyperexcitability).  Term infants can be hyperreflexic, and a few beats of clonus can be a normal finding […]

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6 mn read

Subaxial Cervical Spine Injuries

Posted in Neurosurgery

6 mn read Subaxial Cervical Spine Injuries: Introduction Common cause of disability Most common causes:–  RTA, Fall, Penetrating trauma, Sports Highly prone to traumatic injury: Mobile, relatively unprotected, and its high position 60% of all spinal injuries occur in the cervical spine Subaxial cervical spine injuries include: 2/3rd of all cervical fractures 75% of all cervical dislocations One […]

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2 mn read

Hypertensive Pontine Hemorrhage

Posted in Neurosurgery

2 mn read Contents Case Report Introduction Signs and symptoms Pathophysiology Diagnosis Treatment Hypertensive Pontine Hemorrhage Video Case Report 52yr old male k/c/o HTN not on regular medication Presented with sudden onset loss of consciousness On Examination GCS – E1VetM1 Pupils -B/L 1mm NRTL (Pin-Point Pupils) Planters B/L mute CT Scan Hypertensive Pontine Hemorrhage Hypertensive Pontine Hemorrhage: Introduction […]

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9 mn read

Neuro Urology and The Neurogenic Bladder

Posted in Neurosurgery

9 mn read 1. Neurogenic bladder refers to dysfunction of the urinary bladder due to disease of the central nervous system or peripheral nerves involved in the control of micturition .  2. Non Neurogenic bladder refers to dysfunction of the urinary bladder due to dynamic disturbance of genitourinary system.    Micturition Pathway 3. detrusor muscle of the bladder […]

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4 mn read

MRI Spectroscopy : Neurosurgery Notes

Posted in Neurosurgery

4 mn read   MR spectroscopy provides a measure of brain chemistry. The most common nuclei that are used are  1H (proton) 23Na (sodium) 31P (phosphorus).  Proton spectroscopy is easier to perform and provides much higher signal-to-noise than either sodium or phosphorus. MRS can be performed within 10-15 minutes and can be added on to conventional MR imaging […]

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2 mn read

Hypothalamus Anatomy : Neuroanatomy/ Neurosurgery Notes

Posted in Neurosurgery

2 mn read  Video Link:Neurosurgery written board crash course – hypothalamus    hypothalamus as the name suggests is directly underneath the thalamus and it’s directly above the pituitary  borders of the hypothalamus can be drawn by a triangle  line between the anterior commissure and a posterior commissure and it’s called the ACPC line line between the anterior commissure […]

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3 mn read

History Taking in Neurosurgery : Headache

Posted in Neurosurgery

3 mn read What are the pain sensitive intracranial structures? Brain itself is pain insensitive.  The following intracranial structures are pain-sensitive: Meningeal arteries Proximal portions of the cerebral arteries Dura at the base of the brain Venous sinuses Cranial nerves 5, 7, 9, and 10, and cervical nerves 1, 2, and 3 What are the mechanisms causing headaches? […]

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