- This is an oblique intermuscular passage in the lower part of the anterior abdominal wall , Situated just above the medial half of the inguinal ligament
- Inferior part of the anterolateral abdominal wall
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Length & direction
- It is about 4cm(1.5 inches) long, and is directed downwards, forwards and medially
- The inguinal canal extends from the deep inguinal ring to the superficial inguinal ring
The Posterior Wall
Roof of Inguinal Canal
- It is formed by the arched fibres of the internal oblique and transverse abdominis muscles.
Floor of the inguinal canal
- The floor is formed by an incurving of the inguinal ligament, which is part of the external oblique muscle, forming a gutter. (Medially it forms the lacunar ligament).
Deep inguinal ring
- An oval opening in the fascia transversalis situated 1.2 cm above the midinguinal point, and immediately lateral to the stem of the inferior epigastric artery
Superficial inguinal ring
- Is a triangular gap in the external oblique aponeurosis .
- It is shaped like an obtuse angled triangle .
- The base of the triangle is formed by the pubic crest, the two sides of the triangle from the lateral or lower and the medial or upper margins of the opening.
- It is 2.5 cm long and 1.2 cm broad at the base these margins are referred as crura.
Anterior Relations of Inguinal Canal
- In its whole extent
- Superficial fascia
- External oblique aponeurosis
- The fleshy fibres of the internal oblique muscle.
Structures Passing Through Inguinal Canal
- The spermatic cord in males, or the round ligament of the uterus in females, enters the inguinal canal through the deep inguinal ring and passes out through the superficial inguinal ring.
- The ilioinguinal nerve enters the canal through the interval between the external and internal oblique muscles and passes out through the superficial inguinal ring.
Constituents of Spermatic Cord
- Vas Deferens
- Testicular Artery
- Cremasteric Artery
- Artery of Vas Deferens
Coverings of Spermatic Cord
Mechanisms Preventing Inguinal Hernia
- Medial border of rectus abdominus(medially)
- Inguinal ligament (inferiorly)
- Inferior epigastric vessels(laterally)
Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair- Surgical Anatomy
Myopectineal orifice of Fruchaud
- It is a potential weak area in the lower abdominal wall through which groin hernias occur. It is bounded:
- Above by conjoint tendon
- Below by the pectineal line of the superior pubic ramus
- Laterally by the iliopsoas muscle
- Medially by the lateral border of the rectus muscle.
- This serves as the passage for blood vessels, nerves, lymphatics, muscles and tendons between the abdomen and the lower limb.
- This is the site for direct, indirect and femoral hernias.
- All the three can be repaired by a single piece of mesh by covering this orifice