Triads and Pentads in Surgery

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These triads and pentads somehow tend to be favourite questions of examiners during clinical exams and vivas. Other use of these is to depress your friends by asking questions related to them. Enjoy the read!

What is Bergman’s triad?
1. Mental status changes
2. Petechiae (often in the axilla/thorax)
3. Dyspnea 
Fat emboli syndrome
What is Beck’s triad ?
Muffled heart sound, Distended neck veins, Hypotension
Right Upper Quadrant Pain, Fever, Jaundice
What is Cushing’s triad of Increased Intracranial Pressure ?
Bradycardia, Bradypnea, Hypertension
Head Injuries
Hyperesthesia of the skin, exquisite tenderness and guarding over McBurney’s point
 What is Triad of Sandblom ?
Malena, Obstructive jaundice, Biliary colic
What is Triad of Meigs’ Syndrome ?
Ascites, Pleural effusion, Benign ovarian tumor
Hutchison’s teeth, Interstitial keratitis, Nerve deafness
What is Kartagener Syndrome Triad ?
Triad of bronchiectasis, Recurrent sinusitis, and, Situs inversus,
What is Leriche’s syndrome Triad ?
·         Triad of bilateral hip, thigh, and buttock claudication,
·         Impotence
·         Symmetric atrophy of the bilateral lower extremities due to chronic ischemia
What is Meckler’s triad ?
Vomiting, Pain and Subcutaneous emphysema
What is Saint’s Triad ?
Gall stones, Diverticulosis, Hiatus hernia
What is Samter’s triad (also known as Acetylsalicylic acid triad or Widal’s triad or Francis’ triad or Aspirin triad) ?
Aspirin sensitivity, Nasal polyps, Asthma
What is Tetany Triad ?
Stridor, Carpopedal spasm, Convulsions
What is Triad of Hypernephroma ?
Pain, Hematuria, Renal mass
What is Triad of Plummer-Vinson syndrome ?
Iron defiency anemia, Dysphagia, Esophageal webs
What is Trotter’s Triad ?
Conductive deafness, Immobility of homolateral soft palate, Trigeminal neuralgia
What is O’ Donoghue Triad (Unhappy Triad) ?
ACL, MCL, Medial Meniscus injury (Twisting force on knee)
Knee Injury
What is Virchow’s triad ?
Stasis, Hypercoagulability, Vessel injury

What is Whipple’s Triad ?
·         Hypoglycaemia during attacks
·         Resolution of symptoms upon correction of blood glucose
·         Symptoms brought about by low glucose states.


What is Reynolds Pentad ?
Abdominal pain, Fever, Jaundice, Shock and Depression of central nervous system function
Acute Suppurative Cholangitis

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